July 6, 2022



Catecholamine physiology and its implications in patients with COVID-19

As previously discussed, catecholamines have opposing effects—from hypertensive crises to hypotensive shock—on various systems, sometimes augmenting cardiac output while also potentially causing acute decompensated heart failure, metabolic disturbances, and immune dysregulations. Thus, to avert these devastating catecholamine-induced outcomes, we will discuss the pertinent therapeutic principles that are foundational to the management of catecholamine excess, particularly in PPGL (table). PPGLs can store and therefore secrete great amounts of catecholamines into circulation.


  • Eisenhofer G
  • Kopin IJ
  • Goldstein DS
Catecholamine metabolism: a contemporary view with implications for physiology and medicine.